Eriksons Stages of Psychosocial Development
Eriksons Stages of Psychosocial Development – In history, a lot of psychologists and other mental experts have tried to predict the psychology and behavior of a person using scientific methods.
One of those historical people who worked on the psychology of humans was Erik Erikson. He was a German psychologist who theorized that there is a specific and preset psychological struggle that takes place in eight different stages of every person’s life.
He further mentioned that these travels are directly associated with the behavior and personality of one person. According to his studies, the successful completion of each stage is going to result in a healthy personality.
Today, we will discuss Erickson’s stages of psychological development and try to understand his thoughts regarding these developments and stages.
Infancy – stage one
The first stage is infancy, and during this stage, development centers around trust and mistrust. The first infancy stage begins as soon as the baby is born, and it is going to be until the baby is around 18 months old.
When a baby is born, they start learning about whom to trust by seeing their faces regularly. Apart from that, a baby is totally dependent on your care. By holding them, feeding them, and taking care of them, you build your trust with them, and over a period of time, your baby starts listening to you.
Stage two – Toddlerhood
As per Erik Erikson, the second stage is toddlerhood which starts from the 18th month and can last until the second or third year. This stage is mostly dominated by autonomy versus shame and doubt.
At this stage, your child will start learning things. Your child is not going to be completely dependent on you, and by giving praise, you can help them establish their self-learning foundation.
You should try not to discourage any toddler while they are doing anything independently, as they may start feeling discouraged and ashamed of everything.
Stage three – Preschool
The third stage of the development is named preschool by Eric Erickson. Usually, it starts from age three, and it can last until age 5. This state is mostly dominated by initiative versus guilt. It is the first stage where a kid is going to develop a sense of aim and goal.
The sense of autonomy started in the second stage is also going to continue in the third stage. When a child is encouraged in stage three, they feel more encouraged and try to do more things independently. They can also start failing a purpose in their life.
Fourth stage- Early years of school
The fourth stage, as per Erik Erikson, is going to be completely dominated by industry vs. inferiority. The whole state is going to start from age six, and it is going to last until the age of 11. In this stage, the child is going to become more aware of their individuality, and they are going to feel more accomplishments.
Children at the 4th stage should be praised and supported by their teachers, caregivers, and parents. These small things create a sense of accomplishment in their mind, and they become more positive for life.
Fifth stage – Adolescence
The fifth stage is going to start from age 12 and is going to last until age 18. This stage is mostly going to be dominated by identity and confusion. you might have heard about identity crisis which is a psychological term. It usually starts at this stage.
During the fifth stage, his child is trying to figure out who they are and establish goals and priorities according to their identity. It is one of the most vulnerable stages as it can drive the whole future. You should not push so many expectations and responsibilities at this stage.
Six stage – Young Adulthood
The sixth stage, also known as young adulthood, is going to starts from age 19 and going to last until age 40. Erik Erikson has categorized adulthood into three different sections, and it is the first one.
In young adulthood, a person is going to establish and build upon relationships. People who have meaningful relationships at this stage where friends and family experience more intimacy. Those who do not have good relationships might suffer from isolation and loneliness.
Seventh stage – Middle adulthood
The seventh stage of life by Erik Erikson is known as middle adulthood. It is going to start from age 41 all the way to 65. This stage is mostly going to be dominated by Generativity vs. Stagnation. It is the time when a person starts having a sense of care and responsibility.
A person will start caring about everyone around them and try to pass along what they have learned in their young generation. Those who do not act as a mentor in some capacity may feel bitterness and unhappiness in their life. The whole situation can also lead to restlessness and isolation from their friends and family.
Eighth Stage – late adulthood
It is the final stage of the development process proposed by Erik Erikson. This stage is mostly going to be dominated by integrity and disappear. It is going to start from late 65, and it will last till your last breath. Those who are satisfied with their life, they are going to feel pride in what they have published and demonstrate their wisdom to others.
Those people who do not have a sense of accomplishment in their life will disappear, and they are going to stay in regrets throughout their life.
What can we learn from Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development?
There are a lot of things to learn from Erikson’s stages of psychological development. It provides a broad framework that can help adult people learn about parenthood and the purpose of life. Those who are struggling with an identity crisis or midlife crisis can learn a lot from Erik Erikson’s theory.